Dark Matter, Black Holes & Probability:
The Essence of the Multiverse

by Louis Le, June 2015
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Astronomy and Physics are at a turning point where advances in technology enable us to explore the Universe in ways we could never achieve before. With the Hubble Space Telescope and X-Ray sensors, Astronomers have made more and more observations in the depths of the Universe that can not be explained by our current body of knowledge:

- Galaxy IRAS F11119+3257 with a black hole that is seemingly blowing material outward,
- V404 Cygni with a black hole that should not exist due to the lack of matter around it,
- Galaxy CID-947 with a black hole that is unexpectedly too big, which baffles scientists.

This paper is to explain my view of the Universe, with an emphasis on a new theory where I describe the role of black holes in shaping our Universe with Dark Matter. In addition, we already know how black holes are formed, but this paper highlights a new angle on why black holes are portals to alternate Universes. The information in this paper will help give an understanding of the 3 observations above, which could not be explained... until now...

An Intriguing Universe

A super massive black hole at the center of a galaxy holds in its grip the trillions of stars scattered across the spiraling arms. The entire galaxy peacefully glides through the universe and the black hole appears stable for now. However, at 10 thousand times the mass of our Sun, this black hole severely bends the fabric of space-time around it, and that kind of disruption is bound to cause some commotion.

According to Albert Einstein, space curves into a shape similar to a funnel with the black hole residing at the center. Black holes are thought to have such a strong gravity that not even light can escape from it. The stars in the nearest vicinity orbit irreversibly closer and closer to the black hole, until they finally fall victim to the gravitational pull and get absorbed by the black hole. As it devours the neighboring stars, it increases in mass, causing the fabric of space-time to bend even more acutely. Pretty soon, the funnel will double in size and depth.

This scene occurs time and again throughout the Universe, but an intriguing question remains unanswered: "What happens on the other side of a black hole?". There are so many theories on the universe that try to explain so many topics, but in reality, is there any semblance of relationship between black holes, multiple universes, and Dark Matter? I believe there is... and I will attempt to tie these three enigmas together into my own theory of the universe. I will later introduce a fourth element into my theory: Probability. I will then try to unify all four fundamental elements in explaining my view of the Universe.

Photo NASA: A Black Hole at Center of Galaxy

Summary of the Key Principles of my Theoretical View of the Universe

-Principle 1:

There is an infinite number of alternate membranes (alternate universes), one for each probability.

-Principle 2:

Dark Matter is simply regular matter not visible to us because it resides outside of our membrane. Once the Dark Matter comes into our membrane, it becomes visible.

-Principle 3:

Black holes are conduits through which Dark Matter can be transferred into our membrane.

-Principle 4a:

When the free Probability of matter or energy is close to the absolute zero, then that matter or energy can exist in many membranes at the same time.

-Principle 4b:

When the free Probability of matter or energy reaches the theoretical absolute zero, then that matter or energy WILL exist in ALL membranes at the same time.

-Principle 5:

Black holes decrease the free Probability, which is the reason why they are a conduit for matter or energy transfer from one membrane to another.

-Principle 6:

A black hole can originate from our membrane (Earth's Universe), or an alternate membrane, or from the Dark Matter layer.

-Principle 7:

The Multiverse, which is the collection of all the alternate probable membranes, will eventually converge into Certainty. The Multiverse thrives in Probability but yearns for Certainty.

Another key question that many people ask is "what happens when somebody falls into a black hole?" Based on my view, that person would likely not survive, but his or her particles of matter would end up in an alternate membrane...

Accepted Theories

My theory is just another piece of the large puzzle that is the mystery of the universe. It builds on a few existing theories, some from renowned Physicians like Albert Einstein who has already contributed so many pieces of the puzzle.

Here are some of the key theories that I am using as stepping stones to my theory:

- Theory of General Relativity where massive objects such as black holes bend the fabric of space-time.

- Theory of Multiple Universes which contends that our visible universe is just one "membrane" among many other parallel membranes that are invisible to us.

- Theory of Dark Matter which suggests that there is an incredible amount of invisible mass in the universe.

A Theoretical Universe

Building on the theories above, here is my very own interpretation of the universe. It is simply the way my mind sees the relationship between black holes, parallel universes, Dark Matter and the fourth element:

Multiple Universes, Membranes and Dark Matter Layer

I agree with the existing theory that the universe is composed of several parallel membranes. Only the membrane where we live is visible to us, while all others are not.

I call "Earth Universe" the membrane where we live, in other words, the universe we know and see. Outside of the Earth Universe, there is Dark Matter. A lot of it... There is so much Dark Matter that it exerts some sort of gravitational force on our own visible universe. However, because the Dark Matter is not actually part of our Earth Universe, the Dark Matter gravitational force has a reduced effect on objects in our world, but enough to interact with our galaxies.

Dark Matter can exist either "trapped" in other membranes or "free" outside of a membrane. For simplification, let's call the latter the "Dark Matter layer".

Dark Matter is not Really Dark

Dark Matter is, in a sense, "Dark" because it is not part of our world, and therefore not visible to us. However, an observer residing in the Dark Matter layer would be able to see the Dark Matter in that layer. Extrapolating further, it can be argued that the matter in another membrane is also considered as "Dark Matter" to us, simply because it is not visible to us either. To generalize, I call "Dark Matter", any matter that is not part of our own membrane, our own Earth Universe.

In some specific circumstances such in the presence of black holes, Dark Matter can seep into the surrounding membranes. If it seeps into our membrane, it becomes visible to us. All the stars and galaxies that we see in our Earth Universe is actually Dark Matter that had seeped into our membrane.

-Dark Matter can either reside in a membrane or in a layer between 2 membranes.

Dark Matter Can Shape Our Earth Universe

Since Dark Matter has mass, it has a gravitational pull on matter in neighboring membranes, although the effects of the force are attenuated. With enough mass, it would however be strong enough to move matter in another membrane. Imagine a galaxy with a super massive black hole in membrane A: we will name it the "Enkei Galaxy". Also imagine a large nebula in membrane B, which we will name the "Nausicaa Nebula". As the Enkei Galaxy spins and travels along membrane A, the mass will have gravitational effect on the matter in the Nausicaa Nebula in membrane B. Similarly, a moving or spinning magnet beneath a sheet of paper will attract and coalesce iron flakes sprinkled above the sheet of paper.

In spite of being in separate membranes, the Nausicaa Nebula has become attracted to the Enkei Galaxy and is being tugged by it. After a few hundred million years, the gaseous matter in the Nausicaa Nebula will naturally gather and clump into a group of stars and planetary systems due to the normal laws of physics. However, the nearby presence of the massive Enkei Galaxy in the other membrane has helped stir things and speed up the process. Then, another hundred million years later, the Nausicaa Nebula has turned into a small galaxy of its own: the Nausicaa Galaxy. And at its center, a young black hole... Enkei and Nausicaa are now part of a binary galaxy system, although they are in separate membranes.

Black Holes Enable Dark Matter Transfer

Black holes are a key mechanism that enables Dark Matter to transfer between a membrane and a Dark Matter layer (Scenario 1), or from membrane to membrane (Scenario 2).

When matter is transferred between a membrane and a Dark Matter layer (or vice versa), the transfer is done in a relatively peaceful manner (see Scenario 1 described later in this paper).
I contend that this is how nebulas are created, when Dark Matter seeps into the visible world. This picture of the Orion Nebula (photo by NASA) shows that the gaseous matter seems to have seeped into our world, resulting in a diffuse cloud. The photo is by NASA but the interpretation is based on my theory.

Orion Nebula is created from seepage of Dark Matter into our world

When there is a transfer from membrane to membrane, it occurs in a violent release of energy (Scenario 2 described later in this paper). There are several types of violent releases: the explosive type (Type A) and the non-explosive type (Type B).

There is an exception in the case of binary galaxy systems like Enkei-Nausicaa, where the violence of the event would be radically subdued. This is due to the fourth component of my theory which I will explain later on.

In my theory of the Universe, the Type B releases will result in the creation of galaxies, rather than nebulas. This theory, of course, is controversial and goes against the accepted belief that galaxies are only created via coalescence of matter over millions or billions of years. I speculate that the Type B releases are possibly another way for galaxies to be created. I will simply show 2 pictures from NASA to illustrate my point and let people ponder on the subject:

Early stages of Type B non-explosive release of Dark Matter into our visible world. As the release progresses and gains momentum, the point of release, which is the black hole, will soon begin to spin, thus shaping the galaxy arms into the shape we commonly see: spirals. This type of release can be applied at different scales, large or small. The large ones eventually result in spiral galaxies.

Late stages of Type B non-explosive release of Dark Matter into our visible world. After the initial transfer of matter followed by the momentum of the spinning arms, the matter begins to coalesce into the trillions of stars within the arms of the galaxy.

The galaxies formed by the Type B non-explosive releases all have a black hole at the center, but in these cases, the black hole originated from the other membrane. As the galaxy matures, it behaves like a receding tide where the matter converges back towards the black hole. I theorize that a large number of galaxies are created this way all over our visible universe. This results in an infinite number of galaxies popping up at everywhere our telescope points to. If the Universe continuously expands as suggested by the Big Bang theory, then all galaxies should all move away from each other. So why do have so many cases of galaxies interacting with each other and absorbing each other? Our Milky Way galaxy should be moving away from Andromeda, but we know it's not the case. I assert that maybe Andromeda was created not as a result of the Big Bang, but at a much later date and its matter came from an alternate membrane.

The Case of the Black Hole in V404 Cygni Binary Star System

In June 2015, the European Space Agency detected that the black hole may have become active again, out of the blue, even though there is not enough matter around to make it active. V404 Cygni in the Cygnus constellation is a binary star system that is a worthy candidate for acting out the prediction below and illustrating my theory: I suggest that the black hole in V404 Cygni is actually originating from the Dark Matter layer. (This contradicts the belief that black holes can only originate from our world, but in this case there isn't enough matter concentration around V404 to cause a black hole). It is intermittently active because it is trying to poke through into our world, and it is on the verge of succeeding or may have even briefly done so in the past but quickly retreated.

If it devours its companion star, it would be due to the receding tide effect observed just before a tsunami strikes. As my theory describes, we would then be able to see new gaseous matter appearing to seep into our world where the black hole is, and forming a diffuse nebula-like cloud, which could be either small or large.

Vortex in Binary Black Hole Systems

I estimate the probability of having a case like the Enkei-Nausicaa binary galaxy system to be less than 2%. Binary galaxies will entail the existence of binary black hole systems. Imagine the black hole in the Enkei Galaxy from membrane A. Like all black holes, it bends the fabric of space-time into the shape of a funnel. Similarly in membrane B, the black hole in Nausicaa also has a funnel. The 2 funnels eventually connect into a single vortex.

Probability, the Essence of the Multiverse

This, in my view, is the most interesting aspect of my theory. This fourth element, Probability, allows to tie many different theories into an overall elegant solution, speculating on the real reason why black holes can reach from one membrane to another, and above all, why we have multiple universes.

Probable Universes

There is already an existing theory talking about the existence of multiple alternate universes, and I agree with that view. The term "Multiverse" is often referred to as the collection of all the alternate universes/alternate membranes.

Black Holes Decrease Probability

What is "free Probability" (fP)? This is a concept that is key to my theory. fP is the probability for the matter to change location or state, whether it's a change in Time or change in decay of the matter.

Imagine we track 10 thousand mosquitoes on Earth. Each of those mosquitoes can roam freely on the planet. Their probability of moving around is high within the confines of planet Earth. If a mosquito flies to the left instead of the right, then there is also an alternate universe in which the mosquito actually flies to the right. Now imagine we trap those 10 thousand mosquitoes in a small room. Suddenly, their probability of moving around is severely reduced. Now imagine we trap those same mosquitoes in a space that is only 1 cubic millimeter: they would be completely crushed to death. Their free Probability is extremely low. You would say that their fP is in fact zero, but in reality it's not the case. fP is dependent on Time too, so even if the crushed mosquitoes just stay at the same location, they will decay over time, so the fP is still huge. In addition, fP is applicable to the tiniest particles of matter. We're not even talking about molecules, but we're talking about much much smaller building blocks of matter such as Higgs Boson or God Particles.

So the 1 cubic millimeter of mosquito matter still has lots of space between the super tiny particles. The free Probability of change is still extremely high because even the molecules can be compressed even further, not to mention all the quarks and Higgs Boson that can still move around. This is to tell you that fP really begins to make sense at the smallest scales of the universe. fP becomes close to zero when you have extreme forces such as in the presence of black holes.

Now imagine you drop the 1 cubic millimeter of mosquito matter into a black hole. I am among the believers who think that black holes are so dense with such a strong mass and gravity that matter is infinitely compressed. It is said that the gravity is so strong that not even light can escape a black hole. It is also said that Time slows down in a black hole. I believe that too, and that property actually helps my theory. As the mosquito matter gets drawn into the black hole, it gets compressed into a size where the matter particles can no longer move. Speculating to the extreme, all of the mosquito matter will not only be infinitely compressed, but also will no longer decay because Time slows down too. I speculate that the matter is compressed and turned into the most basic building blocks of energy, and Time is frozen at the point of Singularity.

It is at that particular moment that the free Probability of change is zero: nowhere to go, no evolution, no decay, and no change in Time. Black holes decrease the free Probability of matter towards zero. When the fP decreases, the Certainty increases. Yet, I am unsure if there is a black hole strong enough to actually cause the fP to reach the absolute zero value.

The Universe Thrives in Probability but Yearns for Certainty

The Multiverse thrives in Probability because the more probability, the more alternative universes exist. However, we now know from the above section that black holes decrease the free Probability towards Certainty. If black holes continue to grow, they will inevitably reach the point of zero free Probability of change, in other words "Certainty"...

Probability versus Certainty

Probability is the inverse of Certainty. In a Multiverse, some membranes (or alternate universes) can have planets while some don't. This is because the probability of having a planet is not 100%. This can be said of stars, nebulas, water, alien life etc... On the other hand, if something has an absolute positive certainty of existing, then it will exist. To go one step further, it should exist in all membranes.

Certainty is the Secret Key to the Other Universes, and Black Holes are the Portals

Probability means multiplicity: for every probability, there is a separate universe or membrane. If Probability means a multiplicity of membranes, then Certainty, which is on the other extreme, means a unique membrane. Let's apply this principle to a black hole. Black holes only have a localized effect in their vicinity, but this is enough to have enormous implications. As a black hole grows, the free Probability decreases and the Certainty increases. When maximum Certainty is attained, there is intrinsically absolutely and categorically no room for Probability of change. This is what should be called the point of Singularity.

The point of Singularity can, in theory, belong in all and any of the alternate probable universes, simultaneously. This is a convergence point for all alternate universes in the Multiverse. To rephrase the most revealing key point of my theory: the point of Singularity, after attaining an absolute state of Certainty, can reside in every single alternate universe simultaneously. This is simply because when something is absolutely certain, it has no choice but to exist in all Probabilities.

Once we've established that, we can easily understand that the point of Singularity is the portal to all alternate universes.

Absolute Certainty is not Required to Access Alternate Universes

If absolute Certainty provides a portal to all alternate universes, the "almost Certainty" can provide a portal to "almost" all alternate universes. Absolute Certainty is an extreme state, and it doesn't have to be attained in order to have access to some of the alternate universes. Indeed, if the Certainty is high enough, the black hole can provide a portal to, let's say, 30% of the alternate universes. It is mind boggling to even think there is access to 1 other alternate universe, let alone 30% of all membranes of the Multiverse.

Scenario 1: Transfer of Matter Between a Membrane and a Dark Matter Layer

Black Hole Gentle Feeding

We all live on Earth which belongs in a membrane. All the matter we see, the planets, stars, galaxies and nebulas are all contained in our membrane. A transfer of matter is initiated when a black hole funnel reaches what I call the "natural Matter Transfer Threshold" (nMTT). The nMTT is reached when the surface tension of a membrane is overtaken by the extreme bending of the fabric of space-time around the black hole. Eventually, the surface tension of the membrane can no longer hold the matter and thus, some matter begins to seep through. As an analogy, imagine a wet towel that is saturated with water. If you add more water drops onto the towel, there is a point when it can no longer contain all the water and begins to release a few drops on the underside.

The nMTT depends on how much matter is concentrated on the membrane side versus the Dark Matter layer directly opposite on the other side of the black hole.

If there is a large imbalance of matter mass in opposite sides, the nMTT is low, and the transfer of matter can be fairly easily triggered.

An Observer on the other side of the Black Hole would see Nebulas being created

When the transfer occurs, an observer in the membrane will see the black hole appearing to "feed". An observer on the other side of the black hole will see new nebulas or large gas masses being created. As the matter is discharged to the other side (e.g. from membrane to Dark Matter layer), the mass of the black hole will decrease accordingly, until the funnel no longer enables transfer. This is similar to a siphon that stops when a certain balance threshold is attained. At that time, the observer will see the black hole return to a stable state.

If there are similar amounts of matter mass on both sides of the black hole, the nMTT will be high, and therefore, it will be unlikely that a transfer of matter can be initiated. If the black hole originates from the membrane, an observer from the membrane will see a stable black hole. An observer on the other side of the black hole will not see anything particular, however, the observer would, in theory, be able to detect a massive amount of "Dark Matter" from the membrane (again, for that observer, Dark Matter is any matter that is not visible to the observer).

Are Our Nebulas Made of Dark Matter?

In Scenario 1, a theoretical transfer of matter from membrane to Dark Matter layer has been described, but in fact, a transfer of matter is also possible from Dark Matter layer to a membrane. In my theory, a black hole can originate in a membrane or in a Dark Matter layer. Remember, Dark Matter is really nothing but regular matter that is outside the observer's world. Once the Dark Matter enters the observer's world, it becomes visible matter. As a result, black holes can form anywhere there is enough matter, including a Dark Matter layer. The nebulas we see are in fact the result of Dark Matter seeping into our membrane through a black hole which originated in a Dark Matter layer. This type of event occurs in a relatively gentle manner. Photo at right is from the Spitzer telescope, but the interpretation is based on my theory.

Dark Matter Seeping into our Universe, Creating a Nebula

Scenario 2: Transfer of Matter Between Two Membranes

Destructive Black Holes

Each membrane has some sort of energy resistance or energy potential. When 2 membranes touch, they can do so in a violent release of energy, similar to when you short a battery. Earlier in the paper, we described the non-explosive type of energy release (Type B). In this scenario, we will describe the type A explosive release of energy.

Two alternate membranes can touch as a result of a black hole bending the fabric of space-time. Simply imagine the funnel shape caused by a black hole in membrane A, where the bottom of the funnel touches neighboring membrane B. In this case, the contact will result in a catastrophic event with energy and matter shooting through the vortex. At the same time, some matter will transfer between the 2 membranes.

The case of Galaxy IRAS F11119+3257

IRAS F11119+3257, Image by ESA/ATG medialab

The super massive black hole in IRAS F11119+3257 is believed by the scientific community to be pushing material outward (seen in pink color in the artist rendition, image at left) due to strong winds generated by the black hole.

My own theory not only refutes that premise, but it also explains what is really happening in the case of IRAS F11119+3257: the material that is pushed outward doesn't actually belong to the galaxy to begin with, but it is the result of dark matter from another membrane (another parallel universe) being transferred into our own universe. Because the dark matter is being transferred from membrane to membrane, the transfer occurs in a violent release of energy. I'll repeat my second principle here: "Dark matter is simply regular matter not visible to us because it resides outside of our membrane". Once it is transferred to our membrane (our own universe), the dark matter becomes visible to us.

IRAS F11119+3257 is a perfect example of a galaxy that is growing. It is an incredible opportunity that we are able to witness in our lifetime, an actual inflow of material from another membrane. A few million years later, the new material will settle into the plane of the galaxy, and IRAS F11119+3257 will slowly shape into a common spiral galaxy.

I speculate that IRAS F11119+325 was first created from a Type B (non-explosive) release of energy and Dark Matter through a black hole that originated from an alternate membrane. That early event created the white and blueish part of the young galaxy seen in the image above. Later on, the Type B release increased in intensity and turned into a much more violent Type A explosive release, which is illustrated by the pink part of the image (the outward flow of matter). Based on my Theory, the entire galaxy is actually made of Dark Matter which became visible as it entered our own Universe through the black hole.

Genesis of Galaxies and Nebulas

The Pepsi Theory

The Hubble Space Telescope has taken countless photos of the Universe, and everywhere it looked, it found galaxies after galaxies. This picture (right), which shows a typical area of the Universe, reminds me of the bubbles in a carbonated drink like Pepsi. In this analogy, each bubble is a galaxy. Open a can of Pepsi and bubbles will begin to appear...

A Cluster of Galaxies

My theory suggests that Dark Matter permeates into our Universe through black holes. The Dark Matter then becomes visible to us and we would see it as regular matter. I contend that a great number of galaxies are created when black holes transfer Dark Matter into our membrane. Galaxies and nebulas would start appearing, similarly to the Pepsi bubbles, although the process would take hundreds of thousands of years. The case of IRAS F11119+3257 is a perfect example. I also speculate that V404 Cygni will be another case where new matter will become visible: probably a small nebula. Hopefully, it will not be a catastrophic event like IRAS F11119+3257.

The Case of Galaxy CID-947

Astronomers have recently found a super massive black hole at the center of Galaxy CID-947, but that black hole is a lot bigger than expected compared to the size of the galaxy. With a mass of 7 billion suns, the black hole is 10% of the mass of CID-947 (as a comparison, the super massive black hole at the center of our Milky Way only accounts for roughly 0.2%, which is typical).

This anomaly causes scientists to rethink how galaxies are formed, however, Principle number 6 of my theory can explain why we have a case like CID-947: "A black hole can originate from our membrane (Earth's Universe), or an alternate membrane, or from the Dark Matter layer." Indeed, I suggest that the super massive black hole in CID-947 is not from our Universe, but it originated from an alternate membrane and is trying to "poke through" to our Universe. My theory will predict that new matter will appear around the black hole and will cause the galaxy to grow.


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